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Aarnes Gudmestad

Aarnes Gudmestad, Professor of Spanish

Aarnes Gudmestad, Associate Professor of Spanish
Aarnes Gudmestad, Professor of Spanish

Department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures
319 Major Williams Hall 
220 Stanger Street
Blacksburg, VA 24061
540-231-5362 |

Aarnes Gudmestad, professor of Spanish in the Department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures, also serves as associate chair of the department and director of the Spanish Program. In addition, she serves as associate editor of the Journal of the European Second Language Association.

Gudmestad specializes in second language acquisition and sociolinguistics, and her research explores the intersection of the two fields. Her current projects address issues pertaining to morpho-syntactic structures in Spanish and French.

Her research has appeared in journals such as Language Learning, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, and Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics. She teaches courses on Hispanic linguistics, applied linguistics, and the Spanish language. For more information about her research and a complete list of publications, visit her website.

  • Second Language Acquisition
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Hispanic Linguistics
  • Morpho-Syntactic Variation in Spanish
  • Morpho-Syntactic Variation in French
  • PhD, Indiana University
  • MA, Indiana University
  • BA, Concordia College
  • Associate Editor, Journal of the European Second Language Association
  • Associate Chair, Virginia Tech Department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures
  • Director of the Spanish Program, Virginia Tech Department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures
  • University Graduate Curriculum Committee
  • Excellence in Advising Award, 2020
  • Excellence in Research and Creative Scholarship Award, 2019

Edited Volumes

Edmonds, A., Leclercq, P., & Gudmestad, A. (Eds.). (2020). Interpreting language-learning data (Eurosla Studies 4). Language Science Press.


Gudmestad, A., & Edmonds, A. (Eds.). (2018). Critical reflections on data in second language acquisition. John Benjamins.

Journal Articles

Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2021). Collocational development during a stay abroad. Languages, 6(1), 12.


Edmonds, A., Gudmestad, A., & Metzger, T. (2020). A longitudinal study of grammatical-gender marking in French as an additional language. Applied Linguistics41, 733-755.


Gudmestad, A., Edmonds, A., Donaldson, B., & Carmichael, K. (2020). Near-native sociolinguistic competence in French: Evidence from variable future-time expression. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics23(1), 169-191.


Gudmestad, A., Edmonds, A., & Metzger, T. (2020). Modeling variability in number marking in additional-language Spanish. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 4(1), 24-34.


Carmichael, K., & Gudmestad, A. (2019). Language death and subject expression: First-person-singular subjects in a declining dialect of Louisiana French. Journal of French Language Studies, 29, 67-91.


Gudmestad, A., & Clay, R. (2019). Prepositions in contexts of coordination: The developmental trajectory and language variation. Hispania, 102(1), 75-90.


Gudmestad, A., Edmonds, A., & Metzger, T. (2019). Using variationism and learner corpus research to investigate grammatical gender marking in additional-language Spanish. Language Learning, 69(4), 911-949.


Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2018). Gender marking in written L2 French: Before, during, and after residence abroad. Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, 3(1), 58-83.


Gudmestad, A., Edmonds, A., Donaldson, B., & Carmichael, K. (2018). On the role of the present indicative in variable future-time reference in Hexagonal French. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 63(1), 42-69.


Edmonds, A., Gudmestad, A., & Donaldson, B. (2017). A concept-oriented analysis of future-time reference in native and near-native Hexagonal French. Journal of French Language Studies, 27(3), 381-404.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A. (2016). Subject expression in Spanish: Contrasts between native and non-native speakers for first and second-person singular referents. Spanish in Context, 13(1), 53-79.


Gudmestad, A., & Edmonds, A. (2016). Variable future-time reference in French: A comparison of learners in a study-abroad and a foreign-language context. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 61(3), 259-285.


Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2015). What the present can tell us about the future: A variationist analysis of future-time expression in native and non-native French. Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 6(1), 15-41.


Gudmestad, A. (2015). The case of the conditional and the imperfect in variable mood-choice contexts in second-language and native-speaker Spanish. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics, 28(1), 118-144.


Gudmestad, A., & Edmonds, A. (2015). Categorical and variable mood distinction in Hexagonal French: Factors characterising use for native and non-native speakers. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 107-131.


Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2014). Your participation is greatly/highly appreciated: Amplifier collocations in L2 English. Canadian Modern Language Review, 70(1), 76-102.


Gudmestad, A. (2014/2012). Individual lexical triggers and variable mood use in Spanish.  International Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest, 31(2), 3-27.


Gudmestad, A. (2013). Tense-aspect distinctions within the subjunctive mood in the Spanish of native speakers and second-language learners. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 6(1), 4-35.


Gudmestad, A., House, L., & Geeslin, K. L. (2013). What a Bayesian analysis can do for SLA: New tools for the sociolinguistic study of subject expression in L2 Spanish. Language Learning63(3), 371-399.


Gudmestad, A. (2012). Acquiring a variable structure: An interlanguage analysis of second-language mood use in Spanish. Language Learning, 62(2), 373-402.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A. (2011/2008). The acquisition of variation in second-language Spanish: An agenda for integrating studies of the L2 sound system. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 137-157.


Gudmestad, A., & Geeslin, K. L. (2011). Assessing the use of multiple forms in variable contexts: The relationship between linguistic factors and future-time reference in Spanish. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 4(1), 3-33.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A. (2010). An exploration of the range and frequency of occurrence of forms in potentially variable structures in second-language Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition32(3), 433-463.


Gudmestad, A. (2010). Moving beyond a sentence-level analysis in the study of variable mood use in Spanish. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 29(1), 25-51.

Book Chapters

Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2021). The role of transparency in grammatical-gender marking among stay-abroad learners of Spanish and French. In M. Howard (Ed.), Study abroad and the second language learner: Expectations, experiences and development (pp. 233-253). Bloomsbury.


Geeslin, K. L., Gudmestad, A., Hasler Barker, M., Kanwit, M., Long, A. Y., & Solon, M. (2021). Sociolinguistic competence among heritage speakers of Spanish abroad: Key findings, critical gaps, and contributions to variationist theory. In R. Pozzi, T. Quan, & C. Escalante (Eds.), Heritage speakers of Spanish and study abroad (pp. 13-32). Routledge.


Gudmestad, A., (2021). An exploration of advanced-level learners' verb choices in variable mood distinction contexts. In M. R. Menke & P. A. Malovrh (Eds.), Advancedness in second language Spanish (pp. 172-191). John Benjamins.


Gudmestad, A. (2021). Variationist approaches. In N. Tracy-Ventura & M. Paquot (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and corpora (pp. 230-241). Routledge.


Gudmestad, A. (2020). On the relationship between epistemology and methodology: A reanalysis of grammatical gender in additional-language Spanish. In A. Edmonds, P. Leclercq, & A. Gudmestad (Eds.), Interpreting language-learning data (Eurosla Studies 4) (pp. 111-137). Language Science Press.


Edmonds, A., & Gudmestad, A. (2018). Operationalizing variables: The case of future-time expression in additional-language French. In A. Gudmestad & A. Edmonds (Eds.), Critical reflections on data in second language acquisition (pp.125-148). John Benjamins.


Geeslin, K. L., Gudmestad, A., Kanwit, M., Linford, B., Long, A. Y., Schmidt, L., & Solon, M. (2018).  Sociolinguistic competence and the acquisition of speaking. In R. Alonso Alonso (Ed.), Speaking in a second language (pp. 1-25). John Benjamins.


Gudmestad, A. (2018). Advanced-level mood distinction. In P. A. Malovrh & A. G. Benati (Eds.), The handbook of advanced proficiency in second language acquisition (pp. 343-360). Wiley Blackwell.


Gudmestad, A. (2014). Variationist approaches to second language Spanish. In K. L. Geeslin (Ed.), Handbook of Spanish second language acquisition (pp. 80-95). Wiley-Blackwell.

Selected Conference Proceedings

Gudmestad, A. (2014). On the role of lexical items in the second-language development of mood use in Spanish. In R. T. Miller, K. I. Martin, C. M. Eddington, A. Henery, N. M. Miguel, A. Tseng, A. Tuninetti, & D. Walter (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the Second Language Research Forum 2012: Building bridges between disciplines (pp. 120-133). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Gudmestad, A., & Geeslin, K. L. (2013). Second-language development of variable future-time expression in Spanish. In A. Carvalho & S. Beaudrie (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics (pp. 63-75). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Gudmestad, A. (2012). Toward an understanding of the relationship between mood use and form regularity: Evidence of variation across tasks, lexical items, and participant groups. In K. Geeslin & M. Díaz-Campos (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 14th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 214-227). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A. (2011). Using sociolinguistic analyses of discourse-level features to expand research on L2 variation: Native and non-native contrasts in forms of Spanish subject expression. In L. Plonsky & M. Schierloh (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the Second Language Research Forum (pp. 16-30). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Gudmestad, A., & Geeslin, K. L. (2010). Exploring the roles of redundancy and ambiguity in variable subject expression: A comparison of native and non-native speakers.  In C. Borgonovo, M. Español-Echevarría & P. Prévost (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 12th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 270-283). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A. (2008). Comparing interview and written elicitation task in native and non-native data: Do speakers do what we think they do? In J. Bruhn de Garavito & E. Valenzuela (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 64-77). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Geeslin, K. L., & Gudmestad, A.  (2008). Variable subject expression in second-language Spanish: A comparison of native and non-native speakers. In M. Bowles, R. Foote, & S. Perpiñán (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 2007 Second Language Research Forum (pp. 69-85)Cascadilla Proceedings Project.


Gudmestad, A. (2006). L2 variation and the Spanish subjunctive: Linguistic features predicting mood selection. In C. Klee & T. Face (Eds.), Selected papers of the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp. 170-184). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

  • Global Project Partnership Award, CLAHS, $5000, 2016
  • Research support, Institute for Society, Culture, and Environment, with Katie Carmichael, $1500, 2015
  • Niles Research Grant, College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences, $4000, 2014